The concept of Peptide
1. An organic compound made from dehydrated amino acids, containing carboxyl groups and amino groups, is an Hotsale reliable quality Oxytocin Acetate with best price amphoteric compound. Also known as "win".
2. One of the amides. It is formed by combining two or more amino acids through the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another amino acid. An amino acid cannot be called a peptide, nor can it be synthesized. It must be a compound in which two or more amino acids are connected by peptide bonds. A compound in which two amino acids are connected by a peptide bond is called a dipeptide; a compound in which three amino acids are connected by a peptide bond is called a tripeptide, and so on, a compound in which thirty-four amino acids are connected by a peptide bond is called a thirty-four peptide.
3. It is a biologically active substance that involves multiple cell functions in an organism. As of September 2003, hundreds of peptide have been found in the organism, which are indispensable participants for the body to complete various complex physiological activities. All cells can synthesize peptide substances, and their functional activities are also regulated by peptide. It involves various fields of hormones, nerves, cell growth and reproduction, and its importance lies in regulating various system organs and cells in the body. The physiological and pharmacological effects of enzymatic peptides are mainly to activate relevant enzyme systems in the body, promote the permeability of intermediate metabolic membranes, or affect specific protein synthesis by controlling DNA transcription or translation, and ultimately produce specific physiological effects or exert their pharmacological effects . Peptides are superior to amino acids. First, they are absorbed faster than amino acids. Second, they are absorbed by the body in a complete form. Third, they are actively absorbed (amino acids are passively absorbed). Fourth, they are low-consumption. Compared with amino acids, peptide absorption has low consumption or no need. The characteristics of energy consumption. After the peptide is absorbed through the duodenum, it directly enters the blood circulation and transports its own energy and nutrients to various parts of the human body. Fifth, the peptide absorbs more amino acids and has unsaturated characteristics. Sixth, there are only 20 kinds of amino acids. Countable, and peptides can use amino acids as substrates to synthesize hundreds of thousands.
Peptide is a chain-like amino acid polymer
Peptide is a small molecule collagen that degrades, contains amino acid groups, and belongs to raw materials. Peptide is also a component that exists in the human body. It is a chain structure formed by amino acids. The protein we are familiar with is a multi-peptide chain. The peptides are composed differently due to the different composition and order of amino acids. A compound consisting of two amino acids connected by a peptide bond is called a "dipeptide", and so on, a compound consisting of 9 amino acids is called a "nine peptide", which is composed of multiple amino acids (generally 50, there are also called 100 ) The composed peptides are called polypeptides, and the amino acid units constituting the polypeptides are called "amino acid residues". Peptide bonds connect the amino acids head to tail.
Types of peptide
Talents with molecular weights between 5000 and 50 are called peptides. Those with a molecular weight range between 5000 and 10000 are called large peptides. Those with a molecular weight range of 50 to 2000 are called small peptides, oligopeptides, and oligopeptides, and are also called small molecule active polypeptides. Biologists refer to peptides as "amino acid chains" and small molecule active peptides as "bioactive peptides". Common dipeptides, tripeptides, and even polypeptides, etc., while 2 to 10 peptides belong to oligopeptides, 10 to 50 peptides belong to polypeptides, and usually less than ten peptides. Medical and commercial applicability.
The preparation method of Peptide
There are many traditional methods for obtaining peptides. The traditional methods are: microbial fermentation method, acid method, alkali method, electric method, artificial grafting method, gene expression method, enzymolysis method, etc.
·Microbial fermentation method: The production technology of microbial fermentation method is mainly to convert macromolecular globulin into small molecular peptides through modern microbial fermentation technology, and to produce peptides with different amino acid sequence and different molecular weight by controlling microbial metabolism and fermentation conditions. During the fermentation process, the generated free amino acids are re-absorbed and utilized by the microorganisms, and there is no feedback inhibition on the metabolism of the microorganisms. Through the metabolism of microorganisms, amino acids and small peptides are transferred and rearranged, and certain peptide groups are modified and recombined. For example, the soybean peptide produced by soybean soybean meal as a raw material through microbial fermentation has changed the inherent amino acid sequence of soybean protein, modified the hydrophobic amino acid end of the peptide, so that the soybean peptide has no bitter taste, higher activity, and gives the soybean peptide some biological activity Function, which belongs to the high-tech range of bioengineering, has high technological content, and can be applied in industries such as food industry, fermentation industry, feed industry, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics industry and plant nutrition accelerator. Has a very wide range of applications and very broad development and application prospects.
·Acid method: The method of catalyzing protein to obtain peptides with chemically strong acid is called acid method. This method has large investment, large area, complicated process, large pollution, difficult to control molecular weight, product has chemical residues, it is difficult to form a function, and it is difficult to achieve industrial production. , Still in the laboratory.
·Alkali method: The method of catalyzing protein with a strong chemical base is called the alkaline method. This method is the same as the acid method, and the result is the same.
·Electric method: The method of electrolysis of protein is called electrical method. This method has obvious advantages, low production cost, and good taste compared with enzymatic hydrolysis method.
·Artificial grafting method: the amino acids produced by fine chemicals are selectively grafted. This method is basically operated by machines. The production volume is large, the produced peptides are inactive, and the physiological functions are not obvious.
Gene expression method: The method of separating and extracting from the blood or tissues of animals is collectively referred to as gene expression method. This method is mainly used for the research and production of "peptide drugs". Its representative products are: thymosin, thymosin, interferon, interleukin 1. Interleukin 11, interleukin 111, human serum albumin, immunoglobulin, gamma globulin, tumor cell necrosis factor, etc.
Enzymatic method: The method of catalyzing protein with biological enzyme is called enzymatic method. The enzymatic method has made breakthroughs and innovations on the basis of the traditional method, and has adapted to the requirements of low-carbon economy and environmental protection. Enzymatic method is the use of biological enzymes to catalyze proteins to obtain peptides, that is, peptides that are degraded and synthesized. The enzymatic method is milder and more environmentally friendly than the acid method, alkaline method and electric method. The production process is simple, the investment is small, the effect is fast, and it is suitable for industrial production. The peptide obtained by enzymatic method has easy control of molecular weight, the product has rich green properties, the produced peptide has no bitter taste, and the molecular weight of the peptide is small (the molecular weight is mostly below 1000). These small molecule peptides are directly absorbed without digestion, and have power, carrier, and transportation. , Transmitter and nutrition function, especially it has extremely strong activity and diversity, that is, important biological function.
Peptides can be hydrolyzed out of dietary proteins by chemical methods or can be obtained artificially. It is composed of two or more amino acids (Amino acids) polymerized, which is very important in the regulation of cell physiology and metabolic function.