Thymosin beta-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMSB4X gene.
The protein consists (in humans) of 43 amino acids (msdkpdmaei ekfdksklkk tetqeknplp sketieqekq ages) and has a molecular weight of 4921 g/mol.
This gene encodes an actin sequestering protein which plays a role in regulation of actin polymerization. The protein is also involved in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. This gene escapes X inactivation and has a homolog on chromosome Y (TMSB4Y). Thymosin-β4 is a major cellular constituent in many tissues. Its intracellular concentration may reach as high as 0.5 mM. Following Thymosin α1, β4 was the second of the biologically active peptides from Thymosin Fraction 5 to be completely sequenced and synthesized. Any concepts of the biological role of thymosin β4 must inevitably be coloured by the demonstration that total ablation of the thymosin β4 gene in the mouse allows apparently normal embryonic development of mice which are fertile as adults.