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Cytokines refer to substances that can replace cell culture medium serum high molecular substances in addition to normal components such as amino acids, vitamins, glucose and inorganic salts in tissue culture to promote cell growth. It is a cytokine with stimulating cell growth activity. A type of substance that regulates cell growth and other Best quality Adipotide with affordable price cell functions by binding to specific, high-affinity cell membrane receptors. It exists in platelets and various adult and embryonic tissues and most cultured cells, and has certain specificity for different types of cells. It is synonymous with development factor and proliferation factor, but because the direct purpose of cell proliferation in tissue culture, so the proliferation factor is more accurate.

Most growth factors are peptide hormones in a broad sense, including insulin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and growth hormone release inhibition Factor (somatostatin=SRIH), etc. In addition to peptide hormones, cortisol and thyroxine (T3) are also growth factors. Among these substances, substances other than hormones are known as growth factors of cultured cells, but they are also presumed to be developmental factors of living organisms. Therefore, it is considered that tissue culture is a good experimental method for exploring living development factors. In short, micro-organisms that are indispensable to life activities of microorganisms, and micro-organisms that cannot be synthesized by microorganisms themselves can be called growth factors.

Growth factor (growth factor) A type of peptide substance that regulates cell growth and other cell functions by binding to specific, high-affinity cell membrane receptors. It is a cytokine secreted by various cells, acting on specific target cells, regulating cell division, matrix synthesis and tissue differentiation. [1] Growth factors are present in platelets, various adult and embryonic tissues, and most cultured cells, and have certain specificity for different types of cells. Generally, the growth of cultured cells requires the coordination of multiple growth factors. Tumor cells have the characteristics of independent growth independent of growth factors. In terms of secretion characteristics, growth factors mainly belong to autocrine and paracrine. Many growth factors have been purified and their structural composition determined. For example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a heat-stable, highly positively charged protein composed of dimers containing disulfide bonds with a molecular weight of about 30,000 Daltons. Another example is epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a heat-stable, 53-amino acid residue polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 6000 Daltons. Each type of growth factor has its corresponding receptor, which is a transmembrane protein that is ubiquitous on the cell membrane. Many receptors have kinase activity, especially tyrosine kinase activity (such as PDGF receptor, EGF receptor, etc.).

There are many growth factors, such as platelet-like growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF; osteosarcoma-derived growth factor ODGF), epidermal growth factors (epidermal growth factor EGF, transforming growth factors TGFα and TGFβ), fibroblast growth factor (ΑFGF, βFGF), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-Ⅰ, IGF-Ⅱ), nerve growth factor (NGF), interleukin-like growth factors (IL-1, IL-1, IL-3, etc.), red blood cell growth (EPO), colony stimulating factor (CSF), etc. Because growth factors are secreted by normal cells, there is neither drug toxicity nor immune response, so while studying its physiological mechanism, some have been tried for clinical treatment. For example, interleukin-2 has been used to treat cancer, and it has obvious effects on kidney cancer and melanoma; it is also used in diseases related to immunomodulators and self-immunization. Interleukin-3 is used to treat indications such as bone marrow failure and platelet loss. Epidermal growth factor is used in human burns, trauma, diabetic skin ulcers, bedsores, varicose skin ulcers, and corneal injuries to promote wound healing.

Growth factors are active proteins or peptides that exist in organisms and have a wide range of regulatory effects on the growth and development of organisms. Its general characteristics are that it can bind to specific receptors of cell membranes, and has the functions of regulating cell growth and development, immunity, hematopoietic regulation, tumorigenesis, inflammation and infection, wound healing, blood vessel formation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, morphology The occurrence, embryogenesis and other aspects have important regulatory effects. Cytokines widely exist in various tissues in the body, including mature tissues and embryonic tissues, and regulate the proliferation and differentiation of various cells through autocrine and paracrine methods. Many cells grown in vitro can also release growth factors.

Sources of growth factors

We know that the growth and development of the human body depends on growth hormone, but the results of scientific research have proved that the growth hormone secreted by the human pituitary can only exist for about 2 minutes in the body. After passing through the blood and reaching the liver, it is quickly converted into growth factors. Therefore, in the course of the research, only growth factors in the blood can be detected, but growth hormone cannot be detected. At the same time, it is proved that the growth factor gradually decreases with age, and the human body shows various aging symptoms.

For example: hypothalamus -secretion of growth-promoting hormone (GHRH); pituitary gland - growth hormone (HGH); after blood -Reaching the liver -converted into -growth factor (IGF-1)

The role of growth factors

1. The effect on the skeletal system: Promote the production of large amounts of osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts. Treat osteoporosis, femoral head necrosis, arthritis, rheumatism and diseases caused by calcium deficiency.

2. The effect on the digestive system: strengthen the gastrointestinal function, promote the decomposition of digestive enzymes, increase appetite, and treat chronic gastritis.

3. Effect on the blood system: strengthen the bone marrow hematopoietic function, promote the generation of stem cells, and then generate a large number of red blood cells and white blood cells. Strengthen the thickness of the left ventricle, enhance myocardial elasticity, and effectively treat heart disease. Effectively remove low-density lipoprotein in the blood, prevent deposition on the blood vessel wall, and treat thrombosis.

4. Effect on the respiratory system: Strengthen the function of lung cells, correct the blood-blood barrier, eliminate lung toxins, treat emphysema, lung oxygen deficiency and respiratory diseases.

5. Effect on the endocrine system: Promote the growth of human hormones, strengthen the secretion of various enzymes and hormones, enhance kidney function, strengthen the metabolism of water, and help detoxify the body.

6. The effect on the reproductive system: stimulate the secretion of sex hormones, strengthen the muscle tissue of the sex organs, strengthen the nerve endurance of the sex organs, open the microcirculation, and accelerate the hyperemia of the sex organs.

7. Effect on the immune system: stimulate the regeneration of the thymus, accelerate the generation of lymphatic T cells, B cells, and phagocytic cells, improve immune function, engulf viral bacteria and cancer cells, and treat cancer and tumors.

8. Effect on nervous system: accelerate the recovery of nervous system functions, promote the generation of brain nerve cells and dendrites, reverse brain atrophy, accelerate deep sleep, treat Alzheimer's disease, neurasthenia, memory loss, neurological headaches, etc.