Vitamins are a type of trace organic substances that humans and animals must obtain from food in order to maintain normal physiological functions. They play an important role in human growth, metabolism, and development. Vitamin neurons neither participate in the formation of human cells nor provide energy for the human body.
Vitamins are a class of organic compounds necessary for maintaining good health. This kind of substance is neither a raw material constituting body tissue nor a source of energy in the body, but a kind of regulating substance, which plays an important role in the metabolism of substances. These substances cannot be synthesized in the body or the Hot sale top quality PT141 10mg with best price synthesis amount is insufficient, so although the required amount is small, they must be often supplied by food.
Vitamins are different from the three major substances of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. They account for only a very small proportion of natural foods, but they are necessary for the human body. Some vitamins such as B6 and K can be synthesized by bacteria in the intestinal tract of animals, and the amount of synthesis can meet the needs of animals. Animal cells can convert tryptophan to niacin (a B vitamin), but the amount of production is not as required; vitamin C can be synthesized by itself except primates and guinea pigs. Plants and most microbes can synthesize vitamins by themselves without having to be supplied from outside the body. Many vitamins are prosthetic groups or coenzymes.
Vitamins are some small amounts of organic compounds necessary for human and animal nutrition and growth, and have a very important role in the body's metabolism, growth, development, and health. If you lack a certain vitamin for a long time, it will cause physiological dysfunction and a certain disease will occur. Generally obtained from food. There are dozens of species found at this stage, such as vitamin A, vitamin B, and vitamin C.
Vitamins are essential organic compounds in human metabolism. The human body is like an extremely complex chemical plant, constantly carrying out various biochemical reactions. The reaction is closely related to the catalytic effect of the enzyme. For enzymes to be active, they must have coenzymes. Many vitamins are known to be coenzymes or constituent molecules of coenzymes. Therefore, vitamins are important substances for maintaining and regulating the body's normal metabolism. It can be considered that the best vitamins exist in the form of "bioactive substances" in human tissues.
The origin of vitamins
The discovery of vitamins is one of the great discoveries of the 19th century. In 1897, Ekman discovered in Java that he could suffer from beriberi by eating only polished white rice. Unmilled brown rice can treat this disease. And found that the substance that can cure beriberi can be extracted with water or alcohol. At that time, this substance was called "water-soluble B". In 1906, it was proved that food contains "auxiliary factors" other than protein, lipids, carbohydrates, inorganic salts, and water. The amount is small, but it is necessary for animal growth. In 1911, Casimir Funk identified the substance that can fight beriberi in brown rice as amines, with properties similar to those in food, and most of them are coenzymes. Some supplies must be balanced with each other, such as vitamins B1, B2 and PP, otherwise it may affect physiological functions. Vitamin B complex includes: pantothenic acid, niacin, biotin, folic acid, vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12). Some people also include choline, inositol, p-aminobenzoic acid (p-aminobenzoic acid), carnitine, and lipoic acid in the B complex.
Common types of vitamins
Vitamins are a huge family. There are dozens of vitamins known at this stage, which can be roughly divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble. Some substances are similar to certain vitamins in chemical structure, and can be converted into vitamins after a simple metabolic reaction. Such substances are called provitamins. For example, β-carotene can be converted into vitamin A; 7-dehydrocholesterol can be converted into Vitamin D3; but it takes many complex metabolic reactions to form. The tryptophan of niacin cannot be called provitamin.
Unsaturated monohydric alcohols are fat-soluble vitamins. Because the human body or mammals are prone to dry eye disease when they lack vitamin A, it is also called anti-dry eye alcohol. It is known that there are two types of vitamin A, A1 and A2. A1 exists in the liver, blood, and retina of the eyeball, also known as retinol. Natural vitamin A mainly exists in this form. A2 is mainly present in the liver of freshwater fish.
B1 was the first vitamin that was purified by people. It was first discovered by the Dutch scientist Ikeman in 1896. In 1910, the Polish chemist Funk was extracted and purified from rice bran. It is a white powder, easily soluble in water, and easily decomposed in case of alkali. Its physiological function is to increase appetite, maintain normal nerve activity, etc., lacking it will cause beriberi, neurodermatitis, etc. Adults need to consume 2mg per day. It is widely present in foods such as rice bran, egg yolk, milk, tomato, etc., and can be synthesized at this stage.
Vitamin B6: Helps break down proteins, fats and carbohydrates. It has the functions of inhibiting vomiting and promoting development. Lack of it can cause symptoms such as vomiting and cramps. Including three substances, namely pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. Pyridoxine is converted into pyridoxal in the body, and pyridoxal and pyridoxamine can be converted into each other. Yeast, liver, lean meat and grains, cabbage and other foods are rich in vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 is easily soluble in water and alcohol, and slightly soluble in fatty solvents; it is easily destroyed by exposure to light and alkali, and is not resistant to high temperatures. Vitamin B6 combines with phosphoric acid in the body to form pyridoxal phosphate or pyridoxamine phosphate. They are coenzymes of many kinds of amino acid metabolism enzymes, so they are very important for amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that can treat scurvy and has acidity, so it is called ascorbic acid. High in lemon juice, green plants and tomatoes. Ascorbic acid is a monoclinic platelet or needle crystal, which is easily oxidized to produce dehydroascorbic acid. Dehydroascorbic acid still has the role of vitamin C. In an alkaline solution, the lactone ring in the dehydroascorbic acid molecule is easily hydrolyzed to diketogulic acid.